Qualities You Need to Work in the Travel and Tourism Industry

The travel industry is a multi-billion dollar, global and ever growing industry with many opportunities for work and advancement professionally and benefits to those who work in the industry and their families. The advantage with working in the industry is that there are certain basic qualities that once learned in one area of the industry will be useful should you choose to work in another area of the industry. For example if you work as an air hostess, some of the skills and qualities you acquire will be useful whether you choose to work later on in the hotel industry, as a travel consultant or even as a tour guide. Below are some of the qualities that are needed for you to succeed in this industry.

• A sincere interest in the people you are serving and a willingness to help them. This is very important because the people who you will be serving are different. For example there are those who may know exactly what they want, but there are also those who are not sure what they want and who you have to really spend time and go into details with. If you don’t have an interest in serving and helping people you will soon get tired and want out. On the other hand if you like helping people you can find your job very satisfying.

• Paying attention to detail. This is also very important if you are to avoid making costly mistakes in your job. Most of the time your job will deal with having to fulfil customer requests. For example if a customer wants to travel to one part of the country or world and you are not a person good at paying attention to details, you may find you have taken him or her to another part of the world (a very costly mistake). The good thing is that this is a skill that can be learned. Being organised, a good listener and asking where you do not understand can help you avoid mistakes that are costly.

• A good temper and a positive attitude to deal with whatever situation may come up in your day to day job. Dealing with people can sometimes be difficult and especially unpleasant people. There are the complainers and those who are hard to please (fortunately there are those customers who are very pleasant to deal with). A good temper will go a long way in helping you to deal with the complainers and on the days when things do go wrong.

• Presentable. Remember you represent the image of your company. So in the way you dress and groom you need to appear professional. And it is always good to smile when serving customers. People notice when you smile and are welcoming and just the way you present yourself can mean a repeat customer and respect from both your superiors and colleagues at work.

Top 5 Beaches to Hang Your Hammock in Kauai

Kauai, the Garden Island, is the oldest of the Hawaiian Islands and provides breathtaking scenery to visitors. Kauai’s seemingly endless, beautifully soft beaches invite people to sit back, relax, and take it all in. Take a hammock, beach chair, or a simple towel and find yourself consumed by the beauty of one Kauai’s beaches.

1. Maha’ulepu Beach: This beach is on privately owned land, on one of the last undeveloped shorelines, and has breathtakingly beautiful blue water. Maha’ulepu is also a record of Hawaiian history; it is there that King Kamehameah sent his troops in an unsuccessful attempt to capture Kauai. Maha’ulepu can be found at the end of Po’ipu Road after a 2-3 mile trip along dirt roads. Take the time to walk the beach and rocky ridgeline to find a perfect place to set up for the day and enjoy the stunning views.

2. Ke’e Beach: Ke’e Beach is on the north side of the island where the highway ends. Parking for this beach can be difficult, but entirely worth the walk. Ke’e Beach is inviting because of its beautifully soft sand, crystal blue water, and nearby shade trees. Ke’e Beach is surrounded by a reef that breaks up the oncoming surf providing calm waters for snorkeling. This beach is also frequented by two of Hawaii’s local celebrities: the monk seal and green seal turtle. For hiking enthusiasts the beach is also close to the Kalalau trailhead (only first 2 miles is open for hiking without a permit). Ke’e Beach is perfect for a relaxed afternoon in the sun. Pack a lunch and be prepared to kick back and enjoy.

3. Anini Beach: Anini Beach can be found between the towns of Kilauea and Princeville. Anini is a long stretch of soft, sandy beaches with generally calm and warm waters. This beach is perfect for the novice snorkeler, beginner paddle boarder, kayaker, or average beach bum. Anini’s calm waters provide an exceptional location for all activities. Anini Beach Park is equipped with showers, camping, and grills to provide the perfect backdrop for all visitors. Part of the beach is tree lined for shade, to hang a hammock, or place a chair.

4. Ha’ena Beach Park: Ha’ena Beach Park is in the town of Ha’ena right across the street from the Maniniholo Dry Cave. This is a popular beach so parking is difficult. Tunnels, a popular snorkeling spot, is located to the right of Ha’ena Beach Park. These tunnels are created by the reef system just off shore. Snorkelers will find vast passageways created by the reef, including the fantastic variety of wildlife found within in it. Visitors should keep their eyes peeled for the many kinds of tropical fish and green sea turtles that can be located there.

5. Hanalei Bay: Calm, crystal blue water and wonderfully soft sand can be found at Hanalei Bay. The bay offers beautiful views and endless sunshine. The calm waters are perfect for swimming, snorkeling, kayaking, windsurfing, or almost any other activity visitors might want to try. Hanalei Bay is close to the quaint town of Hanalei where visitors can take a break from the beach for some remarkable restaurants or shopping.

The Ship Angel Gabriel

The book Angel Gabriel by Warren C. Riess contains information of interest to the descendants of the three Burnham boys, John, Thomas, and Robert, who traveled from England to the New World on the ship Angel Gabriel.

On August 15, 1635 the Bristol Merchantman Angel Gabriel, conveying settlers and supplies to the New World, wrecked near the Pemaquid settlement in present-day Bristol, Maine. Settlements like this one were founded, supplied, and protected with early seventeenth-century armed merchant ships. Most of the ships were three-masted, high-sided vessels, today referred to as ship-rigged English galleons. One such ship was the Angel Gabriel that wrecked during the devastating hurricane of 1635 at the Pemaquid settlement in Maine.

Three distinct ships named Angel Gabriel were noted in English records from the 1600s. The first definite reference to the Angel Gabriel that wrecked at Pemaquid is found in the Bristol Port Records of 1619. But evidence indicates that she was originally named Starre, renamed Jason by Sir Walter Raleigh, and finally purchased by two merchants from Bristol, England, who subsequently changed her name to Angel Gabriel.

As the ship named Jason sailed with Raleigh’s second expedition to Guiana, in 1617 she was described as a ship of 240 tons. Sources describe the Angel Gabriel as a 240 ton ship which was particularly large in the early 1600s. In 1629 the age of Angel Gabriel was given as fourteen years, which leads to a construction date of approximately 1615. Accumulation of circumstantial evidence implies that these three ships were one and the same. No located information contradicts this theory.

In the early 1600s, Sir Ferdinando Gorges was convinced by John Smith’s arguments, that colonization of New England would be a successful venture. The settlements could be financed by a fishing and timber industry that would fill returning emigrant and supply ships with valuable cargoes of dried cod and great timbers. From the Council for New England, Gorges secured a patent from King James in 1620 for the land between the St. Lawrence River and present day Philadelphia. In turn, Robert Aldworth and Giles Elbridge received a patent in 1632 from Gorges’s Council (which administered the New England Company) for 1,200 acres around their trading settlement at Pemaquid, in what is now Bristol, Maine.

With the arrival in Massachusetts Bay of more than 1,000 settlers, the Great Migration began in earnest. It was a decade of ship after ship of English families leaving overcrowded, socially rigid England for the land and relative freedoms of New England. Most of them emigrated to what is now Massachusetts, but others settled in towns farther south and north.

During the summer of 1635 Elbridge sent Angel Gabriel to Pemaquid with settlers and supplies. Unfortunately, the merchants’ records and the Bristol port records cannot be located for this time period, but Richard Mather’s journal and genealogical records of immigrants give many details of the voyage and aftermath. Richard Mather, was a devout Puritan minister who suffered religious persecution in Anglican England. In 1635 he planned to emigrate from Bristol to Massachusetts on the smaller merchant ship James. Richard Mather became the minister of Dorchester in the Colony of Massachusetts, his son the Reverend Increase Mather, D. D., the future President of Harvard College, and the grandfather of Rev. Dr. Cotton Mather, minister of Boston. On May 26, 1635, while waiting on board James at Kings Road, just down the Avon River from Bristol, he wrote, “The Tuesday morning… another ship, also bound for New-England, came unto us; which other ship was called the Angel Gabriel.”

Three other ships joined Angel Gabriel and James at Kings Road for the Atlantic crossing. They set sail on June 4, but a contrary wind forced them to anchor in the lee of Lundy Island, at the entrance to the Bristol Channel, for four days. They then proceeded to Milford Haven, an excellent harbor in Wales, to await favorable winds, which finally came on June 22. The five ships sailed together from Milford Haven on that Monday morning before a strong east wind, keeping close together for the first day in fear of “Turkish” pirates who were raiding Bristol shipping at the time.

Quoting from Richard Mather’s journal:

This day, at evening, we lost sight of the three ships bound for Newfoundland, which had been in company with us from Kings Road: and our master thought it best for us to stay for the Angel Gabriel, being bound for New England, as we were, rather than leave her and go with the other three. The Angel Gabriel is a strong ship, and well furnished with fourteen and sixteen pieces of ordnance, and therefore our seamen rather desired her company, but yet she is slow in sailing, and therefore we went sometimes with three sails less than we might have done, so that we might not over go her.

Passengers to the New World paid a hefty sum for the crossing, but most had no better quarters than the crew. The voyage typically cost five or six pounds per adult, which included very basic food. This was a large amount of money, possibly representing years of saving for an average Englishman. There were no special cabins built for them, so to sleep they would find room between decks where they could between the guns, cargo, and other passengers. If there were only a few passengers, they might be berthed in the great cabin or one deck below near the tiller (therefore the term in steerage).

In the 1630s several books were in print to advise settlers what clothes, food, tools, and weapons to bring for their voyage and their farms in America. Writers suggested that emigrants bring extra, better food for the voyage, including live animals when possible (and provisions for the same) to eat on the trip and to start their farms in America. For the latter, live animals were available in the established American settlements, but at a steep price. They advised bringing a year’s supply of such staples as flour, peas, oil, vinegar, oatmeal, gun powder, and musket shot. All manner of farming tools and kitchen utensils were necessary and upper body armor was suggested. Together, these might cost between ten and fifteen pounds, plus shipping charges of between one and two pounds.

Soon after June 29, those on James decided that it was safe enough to leave the slower Angel Gabriel behind and, taking advantage of a strong wind, parted company. However, once they reached America, contrary winds along “the main” cost them a week of hard sailing to proceed a hundred miles. On Friday, August 14 James sailed into the harbor at the Isles of Shoals, a group of small islands off Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Kittery, Maine. Approximately eighty miles to the northeast, on the same day, Angel Gabriel sailed north into John’s Bay between Pemaquid Point on the east and Thrumcap Island on the west. The Passengers would have seen the Pemaquid Peninsula mostly covered with tall trees and lined by a steep, rocky shore for two miles. Then they would have seen a small Pemaquid Indian encampment near a sandy beach. Just beyond that, at the northeast corner of John’s Bay, was Pemaquid Harbor, protected by small islands and ledges. Elbridge’s small settlement lay at the shores of the harbor. In 1635 Pemaquid was the northeastern-most English settlement in America.

Along the northern New England coast that evening everything seemed normal; but as the crews of the two ships anchored for the night, to their southwest a deadly storm was moving up the coast. This was not a typical summer storm, but a powerful early-season hurricane, possibly the most powerful hurricane to hit New England in recorded time. It struck southern New England in the evening, causing a storm surge in Narragansett Bay fourteen feet above the normal high tide line.

In Plymouth, William Bradford later recorded:

This year, the 14th or 15th of August was such a mighty storm of wind and rain as none living in these parts, either English or Indians, ever saw. It began in the morning a little before day, and grew not by degrees but came with violence in the beginning, to the great amazement of many. It blew down sundry houses and uncovered others. Divers vessels were lost at sea and many more in extreme danger. It blew down many hundred thousands of trees, turning up the stronger by the roots and breaking the higher pine trees off in the middle.

The crew and terrified passengers on James were helpless in the face of the storm, except to go below deck and pray for deliverance, which they did. After being tossed and beaten by the storm for hours, they survived and eventually made it to shore with their extra sails. Things were worse at the next settlement, Pemaquid. There the storm probably hit just after sunrise taking the inhabitants and new arrivals, as everywhere else, entirely by surprise. Mather wrote:

And the Angel Gabriel, being then at anchor at Pemaquid, was burst in pieces and cast away in this storm, and most of the cattle and other goods, with one seaman and three or four passengers, did also perish therein.

Some local lore maintains that most of the passengers and crew came ashore over rocks in the eye of the storm, when Angel Gabriel wrecked on either Fish Point or on the rocks by the remains of Fort William Henry. Mather and Trelawny reported the ship at anchor at the Pemaquid settlement when the hurricane struck. Being Elbridge’s ship she was most likely bringing supplies to their trading settlement. This could mean at least a few days of unloading, and many passengers and most of the crew may therefore have been ashore for the night when the storm struck early in the morning of August 15, 1635.

A list of crew or passengers aboard Angel Gabriel has not been located, but a combination of archival records and recorded family lore indicate twenty-six of those aboard – twenty-five passengers and the captain. While Mather mentions a hundred passengers aboard the James, the assumption should not be made that the 240 ton Angel Gabriel had a similar number of passengers. Elbridge had a growing trade settlement to supply at Pemaquid, and may have found transporting his own goods more profitable than shipping settlers’ belongings and supplies. In addition, the space required for fourteen or sixteen guns and their equipment would have been a major consideration on the main deck, where passengers normally were berthed. Elbridge may have transported only a few passengers with their belongings as space permitted. Today, primary archival records support only the presence of the Cogswell family, William Furber, and Samuel Haines.

Others listed are derived from material in family genealogies.

Andrews, possibly Robert Andrews

John Bailey

John Jr.


Ralph Blaesdell (42)

Elizabeth (wife)

Henry (3)

Thomas Bradbury

John Burnham

Thomas Burnham (16)

Robert Burnham (11)

John Cogswell

Elizabeth Cogswell (wife)

William (16)

John Jr. (12)

Edward (6)

Mary (16)





William Furber (21)

Samuel Haines (33)

Henry Simpson

John Tuttle (17)

Brief Information about Some of the Passengers


I could not find archival material about the ship’s master (captain), but a secondary source claims that Robert Andrews, uncle of John and Thomas Burnham was master of the ship when she was lost. Robert Andrews was born in Norwich, England and was married to an Elizabeth. However, the same Robert Andrews already was living at Ipswich, Massachusetts in 1635, was granted freeman status (one who could vote and hold office) in May 1635, and was given a license to run an inn on his farm in September 1635. It is possible, that this Andrews was Angel Gabriel’s master. He may have been living in Ipswich and made a round trip to England, returning as the ship’s master.


Family genealogies, but no primary archival records, relate that John Bailey, a weaver from Chippenham, left his wife Elizabeth and three children in England and took passage aboard Angel Gabriel with his son John Jr. and daughter Joanna. They lived in what became Newbury, Massachusetts for two years after the wreck. In 1637 they settled on a fifty-acre plot on the banks of the Merrimac River in Salisbury where John fished and farmed. John Jr. And Joanna eventually left Salisbury and moved back across the river to Newbury. John Jr. married Eleanor Emery and Joanna married William Harrington or Huntington. Elizabeth, John Sr.’s wife who had stayed in England, never came to America. Family lore relates that the family was so terrified by the hurricane experience that neither group would cross the Atlantic to be with the other. Patricia Bailey, a present-day member of the family and singer, has composed a touching ballad of the family’s terrible ordeal.


Information from the Cogswell’s account of their journey provides some interesting insights. Mr. Cogswell took with him besides his wife and eight sons and daughters, several farm and household servants, an amount of valuable furniture, farming implements, housekeeping utensils, and a considerable sum of money. He noted in his writings, “the Angel Gabriel became a total wreck, passengers, cattle, and goods were all cast upon the angry waves.” Mr. Cogswell and his family reached the shore with their lives, but well drenched by the sea and despoiled of valuables to the amount of five thousand pounds sterling. They were more fortunate than some who sailed with them, whom the angry waves gathered to a watery grave. On leaving England Mr. Cogswell had taken along with him a large tent, which now came into good service. This they pitched, and into it they gathered themselves and such stores as they could rescue from the waves. The darkness of that first night of the Cogswells in America found them housed beneath a tent on the beach. The next day they picked up what more of their goods they could, which had come ashore during the night or lay floating about upon the water. As soon as possible Mr. Cogswell, leaving his family, took passage for Boston. He there made a contract with a certain Capt. Gallup, who commanded a small barque, to sail for Pemaquid and transport his family to Ipswich, Massachusetts.

It is hard for us to imagine the scene of the storm. It was not unusual for people on the shore to watch a ship break into many pieces and crew and passengers thrown into the wild sea as they were helpless to offer any form of rescue. Traces of this storm remained for years. In wondering how Robert Andrews and his three nephews reached Ipswich, one descendant living presently in Essex stated that they walked all the way. What an introduction to America and their new adventure for these three English boys!

Customs in Mozambique

Mozambique is a blend of different cultures and religions which has led to a country with different customs to the rest of the region. Encompassing some European customs as well as local African ones, it is important to know what to do and when to do it so as to avoid giving offense. On a whole the people are very friendly and easy going, a theme which is carried over into their customs.

Greetings and gestures

A verbal greeting is the most common form and is normally expressed by saying hello (hola). Shaking hands is normally done between men only although as the country becomes more modernized this practice is starting to show through for women in business settings.

As the main language in use is Portuguese, the way that certain expressions are said will change depending on whether you are speaking to or about a man or woman. As in most other countries, if you are at all uncertain about how to address someone, then it is best to be formal and use Mr, Mrs, Miss and their surname.

The basic formalities

  • It is considered bad manners to visit someone and not stay for a snack and some tea.
  • Women usually cover their thighs. This is seen as a private area in Mozambican culture and should not be on display.
  • Refusing to accept food is also seen as being rude.
  • Mozambican’s are not big on punctuality although this may in part depend on the individual. Always try to arrive on time just in case.
  • Remember that Mozambique consists of many different religions so be mindful that some people may have religious convictions other than your own. Try to keep religious opinions to yourself as you never know when you will give offense.
  • It is customary to cover one’s mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing.
  • The government has restricted the taking of photos of certain buildings, always best to confirm this with the locals to avoid trouble.
  • Mozambican’s are laid back people but this doesn’t mean they don’t have a respectful culture. Treat people the way you would like to be treated and you will get along just fine.

Hygiene and appearance

  • Mozambique is definitely still a 3rd world country and has a high number of various diseases so washing hands is essential.
  • Maintaining a clean personal appearance is important and as such many people will do the best they can with limited facilities.
  • Criticism of another’s hygiene in public is not condoned and should be avoided.

Business etiquette

  • Business attire is important for both men and women but bear in mind that it should also be practical due to the weather.
  • Punctuality is not often seen in business meetings, however foreigners are often judged by a different standard so try your best to be on time.
  • It is important to greet the most senior person first in any business meetings.
  • Asking about people’s health and engaging in small talk before getting down to business is normal.

Social etiquette

There are a number of social customs that should be observed which include:

  • Women shouldn’t touch a man unless they are interested in being romantically involved with him or are already involved with him.
  • Personal space is normally about an arm’s length away from someone. This is not the same when standing in a queue as then people literally stand on top of each other.
  • Mozambican’s enjoy socializing and this often involves food and drink.
  • Reading a book or anything else of that nature while in the company of others is considered very anti-social.

Nairobi, the Capital of Kenya

Some historians believe that the most ancient human traces that were ever found were discovered in Kenya. They asserted that the port and the city of Malinda existed at the beginning of the 40th century BC and it was a commercial center at the time. Travelers have been touring Kenya since a very long time as well.

Nairobi, the capital of Kenya, is in fact the gate to enter inside a world that is full of magic and amazement. The word Nairobi, in the Maasai language, means the location of the honored water, in reference most probably to an ancient cult that was dominant in the region in ancient times. Travelers who spend their vacations in Kenya would commonly begin their trip in Nairobi.

Among the most wonderful characteristics of Nairobi, away from being the largest and most important city in the country and a significant commercial, cultural, and important hub, is that the city hosts a huge open zoo, the Nairobi National zoo. Located only 8 kilometers away from the city, the zoo, considered to be among the largest and most remarkable in the world, hosts hundreds of visitors who tour Kenya everyday.

Nairobi has greatly developed largely in less than one century. The city transformed from being just an area of natural swamps to center of civilization, from a small town where only workers in the railway resided at in 1899, to a big modernized city in 1907 and acted as the capital of Great Britain in 1907. Almost all travel packages to Kenya would include a visit to Kenya.

Being small features the center of the city of Nairobi and travelers who tour Kenya can easily wonder around it waling or by hiring a taxi for cheap prices. Away from the natural beauty of the country, there are a number of other attractions that might interest travelers who spend their vacations in Kenya.

There is for example, the Karen Blixen Museum that is located around 10 kilometers away from Nairobi. The museum was actually the residence of the famous Danish author, Karen Blixen who was famous for her many works of literature. The museum welcomes several tourists who travel to Kenya.

The Karen Blixen Museum or the residence was built in 1912 and Blixen and her husband bought it in 1921. She remained in the house until 1931 and established a large farm of coffee tress. She would never have imagined that her house would be transformed into a popular museum visited by many tourists who travel to Kenya.

Vacationers who travel to Kenya enjoy a marvelous blend of history and architecture that is the result of the merge between many various cultures and civilizations including the Portuguese, the Indian tradesmen, the British, and of course the native dwellers of the country that originally belong to a number of large African tribes.

The most remarkable souvenirs tourists who spend their holidays in Kenya should purchase from Nairobi include, handcrafts, wooden products, and ivory, considered to be a symbol of the city and perhaps the whole country.

Kenya is among the most distinguished African countries that are popular among travelers from various regions around the globe. Since the beginning of the 20th century, many travelers began to travel to Kenya for its unpatrolled natural scenery and the unique culture of the country that is difficult to be found anywhere else.

Toulouse – The Red City

Toulouse is one of the most stylish cities of Southern France. Situated between the Mediterranean (150 km away) and the Atlantic (250 km), and just 110 km from the ski resorts of the Pyrenees and 730 km from Paris, Toulouse is the chief city of the huge Midi-Pyrenees Region and the fourth largest city in France. With the second largest student population outside of Paris, Toulouse is among the leading great metropolises of Southern Europe. Dubbed the ‘Ville Rose’ because of its pink brick buildings, Toulouse sits astride the Garonne River and the historic Canal du Midi, midway between the Med and the Atlantic. The heart of town is the vast, arcaded Place du Capitole, where the impressive, grandiose Capitole building is the seat of local government.

Regular scheduled domestic and international flights arrive at Blagnac airport, about 20 minutes from the city, or drive from Paris by taking the A10 to Orleans and the A20 to Toulouse. A very quick and comfortable means of arrival is by train (six hours from Paris) as the train station is almost in the heart of the city.

Old Toulouse is effectively quartered by two nineteenth-century streets, the long shopping street, rue d’Alsace-Lorraine/rue du Languedoc, which runs north-south; and rue de Metz, which runs east-west onto the Pont-Neuf and across the Garonne. It’s all very compact and can easily be walked, although the city does have a metro. In addition to the general pleasure of wandering the streets, there are three very good museums and some real architectural treasures in the churches of St-Sernin and Les Jacobins and in the magnificent Renaissance town houses – hotels particuliers – of the merchants who grew rich on the woad-dye trade.

The main shopping streets are rue La Fayette and rue d’Alsace-Lorraine. Luxury goods are to be found in one of the prettiest streets in Old Toulouse, rue Croix-Baragnon, while the boutiques on rue Saint-Rome offer more accessible priced clothes. Place du Capitole is the centre of gravity for the city’s social life. Its smart caf├ęs throng with people at lunchtime and in the early evening when the dying sun flushes the pink facade of the big town hall opposite. This is the scene of a mammoth Wednesday market for food, clothes and junk and of a smaller organic food market on Tuesday and Saturday mornings. From Place du Capitole, a labyrinth of narrow medieval streets radiates out to the town’s several other squares, such as Place Wilson, the more intimate Place St-Georges, the delightful triangular Place de la Trinite and Place St-etienne in front of the cathedral.

For those so inclined, while in Toulouse take a trip to the worlds largest Marian shrine at Lourdes, just one hour away on the A64, or visit the historic fortified city of Carcassonne, two hours away on the A61.

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Overview of Nairobi City, Kenya

More than a century old, the capital city of Kenya is the only major city neighboring a national park (Nairobi National Park). Its cosmopolitan nature contributes to the illimitable energy and the numerous elements of diversity, from fashion and food to language and beliefs.

Popularly known as the city in the sun, Nairobi is perhaps the most interesting city to visit, live and work in Kenya given the great contrasts that exist. You will just as easily meet a woman with a basket on her head, a child on her back, pregnant and on her way to the market as you will spot another woman adorning sunglasses and high heeled shoes, talking on a Samsung galaxy SIII phone while driving a Range Rover. The same contrasts apply in all other aspects of social, cultural and economic settings.


Initially a salty and uninhibited swampland, Nairobi has come of age as a modern city.

  • The pastoralist Kenyan Maasai community knew the swampland as Enkare Nyrobi, meaning an area of cold water, and it is from this phrase that the name Nairobi was born.
  • During the Kenya railway construction under the British colonial rule, a camp known as Mile 327 was set up as a supply depot. The British used this camp as a provincial capital until 1905, when Nairobi was made the capital of British East Africa Protectorate.
  • In 1963, Nairobi became the capital city of independent Kenya.


Nairobi is the headquarters of Nairobi county and Nairobi district.

  • Until the promulgation of Kenya’s new constitution in 2010, the government was centralized in Nairobi, with all government ministries, arms of the government, major company headquarters and major institutions such as Referral hospitals, universities and national and international schools being located here.
  • All international bodies such as UNHCR, UNEP, UN Habitat etc., plus foreign missions and embassies are located in Nairobi.
  • The city has witnessed the worst political unrest from the 1981 coup de tour and Saba Saba political movement to numerous conflicts between President Moi Regime and social and political activists.

Money talk

  • Nairobi contributes more than 60% of Kenya’s Gross Domestic Product- making it a very crucial area in determining the country’s economic progress.
  • Presently, Nairobi Stock Exchange is the oldest and largest in Africa and graded 4th in regards to trading volumes (signifying the potential the city has investment-wise).

Demographics in Nairobi

With an area of 684km2, Nairobi has a population that is almost equally divided between the have and the have-nots, harboring as many wealthy people as urban poor. Collectively, however, rich or poor, the people of Nairobi are all Nairobians.

  • The most populous East African city, Nairobi has more than 3.375 people
  • In Africa, it is the 12th largest city.
  • Being a cosmopolitan and multicultural city, it has people from all the 47 tribes of Kenya, plus people from all African countries and representatives from around the world.
  • The main languages are Swahili and English
  • There is a growing, urban-language phenomenon in Nairobi popularly known as Sheng, which is made by marrying or bending Swahili words with other dialects.
  • You will find Catholics, Protestants, indigenous believers, Buddhists and even atheists here.

Real-estate demographics in Nairobi

Nairobi has the worst and best in property demographics.

  • While there is a growing middle-class real-estate market generating high property yields, there is simultaneously an increase in unsuitable dwelling units such as shanties and squatter settlements among the urban poor.
  • There is a huge housing deficit due to high rural to urban migration (though the deficit makes Nairobi an ideal place for investment)
  • With improvement in infrastructure, the value of properties and rental yields in various areas in Nairobi have doubled and even tripled in recent years
  • Nairobi has registered 20% growth in its high-end residential real-estate market, ranking the best globally.

Nairobi Weather

Situated at 10 17o S 360 46 o E and at 1,795 meters above sea level, Nairobi stands amid Mombasa and Kampala cities. To its west are the Ngong Hills and to the north and southeast towers Mt. Kenya and Mt. Kilimanjaro respectively.

  • Nairobi has a subtropical highland climate with an altitude that contributes to cool evenings and moderate temperatures.
  • December and March are the warmest and sunniest with average of 240 C.
  • Nairobi has two rainy reasons with moderate rainfall in April and July.
  • The city receives minimum of seven hours of sunshine daily throughout the year.

Looking at the Wooden Log Cabin Preserved in The Underground Railroad Freedom Center

Various artifacts, stories and a 12 minute film trace America’s struggle from the earliest beginnings of slavery through the Civil War unto reconstruction after the attainment of freedom at the Underground Railroad Freedom Center.

One of the most memorable exhibits is the wooden log cabin preserved and restored within the center to represent a principal instrument of dehumanizing the black race with more than 75 slaves usually stacked on the limited floor space and above in special racks to which they were shackled and chained thus forced to eat and defecate right there.

This structure was an actual one found on a Kentucky farm in Mason County which was moved from there and rebuilt in the Freedom Center. It now dominates the second-floor atrium where visitors encounter it again and again while traversing the other exhibits. It could also be seen through the Center’s large windows from the downtown street outside.

Slaves were temporarily housed there on their way south to be resold.This 21 by 30 foot (6 by 9m), two-story log slave pen built in 1830 was used to house slaves being shipped to be auctioned.

An original feature of the Slave Pen is a shackle ring in the second floor joist, which was being used to secure male slaves.

The pen is said to have been originally owned by Captain John Anderson, a Revolutionary War soldier who became a slave trader. He was particularly known for his keen business sense watching time.and other conditions that could enhance or ruin his chances for a good profit. He would always appraise the potential market, his investments and deal-making and the intricacies of gathering, holding, transporting and selling slaves at the slave markets in Natchez, Mississippi before making a plunge.

Slaves waiting to be transported from Dover, Kentucky to slave markets in Natchez, Mississippi and New Orleans, Louisiana were imprisoned in this barn for a few days or several months, waiting for favorable market conditions and higher selling prices to prevail.

The barn has eight small windows, the original stone floor from a large chimney and a fireplace. There is a row of wrought iron rings through which a central chain ran, tethering men on either side of the chain. Male slaves were held on the second floor, while women remained on the first floor where they used the fireplace for cooking.

“The pen is powerful,” Carl B. Westmoreland, curator and senior adviser to the museum said. “It has the feeling of hallowed ground. When people stand inside, they speak in whispers. It is a sacred place. I believe it is here to tell a story – the story of the internal slave trade to future generations.” Visitors to the museum walk through the holding pen and touch its walls, as we did when 17 of us from different parts of the world visited it.. Taken from records kept by slave traders in the area who used the pen, the first names of some of the slaves believed to have been held in the pen are listed on a wooden slab in the pen’s interior.

Westmoreland spent three and a half years uncovering the story of the slave jail. “We’re just beginning to remember. There is a hidden history right below the surface, part of the unspoken vocabulary of the American historic landscape. It’s nothing but a pile of logs, yet it is everything.”

Other prominent features of the Center include:

o The “Suite for Freedom” Theater where three animated films address the fragile nature of freedom throughout human history, particularly as related to the Underground Railroad and the institution of slavery in the United States.

o The “ESCAPE! Freedom Seekers” presentation and interactive display about the Underground Railroad where school groups and families with young children are presented with choices on an imaginary escape attempt. The gallery features information about figures like abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, Underground Railroad conductor Harriet Tubman. and orator Frederick Douglass ~Escape Freedom Seekers and ~The Underground Railroad is an intriguing and inviting hands-on interactive experience designed particularly for children and families encouraging them to explore this troubled period of American history. The center is almost transformed to a school as stories of people and families involved in fighting against slavery are being told.

o The film, “Brothers of the Borderland,” highlighting the story of the Underground Railroad in Ripley, Ohio along the Ohio River and the roles of conductors John Parker and Reverend John Rankin.

o Information about the history of slavery and those who opposed it, including John Brown, Abraham Lincoln and the American Civil War.

o “The Struggle Continues,” an exhibit depicting the ongoing challenges confronted by African-Americans since the end of slavery, ongoing struggles for freedom in today’s world, and ways that the Underground Railroad has inspired groups in India, Poland and South Africa.

o The John Parker Library which houses a collection of multimedia materials about the Underground Railroad and freedom-related issues.

o The FamilySearch Center where visitors can investigate their own roots.

The Freedom Center’s Executive Director and CEO, Spencer Crew, was previously the director of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History.

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Travel Tips When Going to Safaris

Here are some general guidelines that can help you when going on safaris:

1. Personal safety – in any place that you travel to, you must ensure your personal safety.

• Do not bring huge amounts of cash.

• Your passport, cash, and other travel documents should be in a pouch under your shirt or stuffed in your daypack or camera bag.

• Watch your personal bags closely while walking in jam-packed places, such as on the streets, restaurants, markets, and airports.

• Do not walk alone in the evening.

• When going out, consider your cash, passport, and airline tickets in the lodge or hotel safe.

• Do not bring any jewelry during your travel. It is best to leave them at home.

• Valuables, such as your camera, handbag, wallet pouch, and mobile phones, should be kept hidden, and definitely not in your car hire, tour bus, or back seat. Make sure also that you do not leave them in your room at safari lodges or camps.

2. Travel insurance – obtain travel insurance as soon as your travel plans are confirmed so that you will be covered if there is an unexpected or unfortunate event that happens before your safari trip.

3. Reminder to your Credit Card Company and bank – most credit card providers and banks encourage you to inform than before travelling abroad so that their monitoring systems will not suspend your credit card when they discover any strange purchases (paying for flights, rental cars, and hotels) that happen on holidays. Sometimes, these purchases could trigger your credit card suspension and result in embarrassing moments.

Be careful when providing your credit card information while you are on a trip as well. It is unfortunate that other people can obtain your credit card number without your knowledge (when paying for accommodation at hotel desks, rental companies, shops, etc.). When you pay your bill, do not let your credit card out of your view.

4. Water – remember to only drink bottled water because water from other sources may not be safe. You can obtain bottled water in all your safari lodges and camps. On all of your tours, make sure that you have bottled water with you. When you feel uneasy about the quality of water in the place you are staying in, you can ask any of the staff. For emergency use, you can also bring along water purification tablets with you.

5. Tipping – this is a common dilemma for a lot of tourists in a foreign country, including safari trips, business travel and cruises. Tipping is not expected if you are going on a safari trip in Africa, but it has become conventional. The gratuity to safari camp staff and guides is not part of your total tour price and it is also completely optional.

Keep in mind that what might be a small amount to you could be substantial to a local staff and it will be definitely taken with gratitude.

Most safari camps have a tip box located at the reception area, which covers the unnoticed services, such as for the people who work in the kitchen and person who cleans your room.

When tipping, do it moderately and according to the quality and level of service given and, of course, only if you are happy with the service that you get. Here is your guide, which is an accepted practice in general:

• Transportation/Driver – US $10 and above per day

• Private safari guide – US $25 and above per day

• Camp staff – US $10-$20 per day (this will be shared among waiters, bartenders, housekeepers, etc.

If you spend more time with a guide, you can increase the amount of your tip.

5 Helpful Tips For Booking Your Grand Canyon Helicopter Tour From Las Vegas

Are you thinking about visiting Vegas and considering taking a helicopter tour of the Grand Canyon while there? If so, you’ll want to know a few things to help plan your adventure. Here are 5 tips that will help you plan your best trip.

#1 Buy Your Tour In Advance

It’s very important to buy your tour in advance when it comes to helicopter tours of the Canyon. These helicopter tours are very popular with visitors to Vegas, so you want to lock in your seats at least two weeks in advance. Booking early locks in your price too, so you won’t have to pay more by buying your tickets too close to the departure date.

#2 Book Online

The most convenient way to book your tour is to go online. Prices are lower when you book online too because you’ll get to cut out the commissions you’d have to pay when you book in person or on the phone. When you use your credit card to buy your tour online, you get to use the low Internet rate.

#3 Choose The Deluxe Tour Option

If you want the best experience possible, then upgrade to a deluxe tour. For instance, when you book a deluxe tour, you’ll get complimentary limousine transportation to and from your hotel. Another perk is that the deluxe tours fly on more advanced aircraft. They fly on an EcoStar 130 chopper. The EcoStar is bigger and more comfortable than the basic Bell Ranger helicopter, and if offers better views too through the panoramic viewing window. The cabin is quieter too, and the seats are arranged in a stadium style, so everyone gets a great view. You’ll also be treated to an aerial tour of the Vegas Strip with you book a deluxe tour. If you book one of the last tours of the day, you’ll get to the Strip lit up, which is an exciting experience.

#4 Select A Landing Tour

Want some extra excitement on your tour? Then you should buy a landing tour if at all possible. When you book a landing tour, you get to see the Canyon from the ground too. You can book a helicopter tour out of Vegas that flies down to the bottom of the Canyon where it lands, or you can book one that lands on top of the West Rim. Then you can experience other adventures such as a raft ride on the smooth waters of the Colorado River or a exhilarating walk on the glass Skywalk. Plus, you’ll have your choice from many hiking trails you can walk to enjoy the lookout points and beautiful nature scenes.

#5 Dress Appropriately

You may need to wear a light sweater during your flight since the helicopters have climate control. If you plan to land in the Canyon, you want to check the weather forecast before you leave. During the winter months, it is often chilly at the Canyon, but during the summer, it is extremely hot. You’ll need to dress appropriately so you’re comfortable, plus, be sure to take some extra water and snacks along with you.


Hopefully, these tips will be useful when it’s time to book your helicopter tour. If you’d like even more tips and answers to your questions, you can read my guidebook or chat with me on my website. I’d love to help you plan a fun and exciting trip to one of America’s most loved landmarks.