Rare American Coins and the 1981 US Assay Silver Dollar

The US Assay Commission was formed by the Mint Act of 1792 and continued to function until 1971, when precious metals were no longer used in American circulated coinage.

In 1977, no members were appointed to the commission. Then in 1980, President Jimmy Carter signed legislation to abolish the Assay Commission completely.

These 1981 Assay one ounce silver dollars have become rare American coins, not produced by the US Mint.

The Assay Commission’s function was to supervise the annual testing of the gold, silver, and in its final year’s base metal coins produced by the United States Mint to ensure that they met specifications. Beginning in 1797, it met in most years at the Philadelphia Mint.

In the late 1960s, the Defense Logistics Agency had over 165 million ounces of silver in its stockpile. The Federal Government sold much of this silver on the open market in 1980 and 1981.

After the US Mint stopped using silver in circulating coinage, the US government felt compelled to sell portions of its reserves to the public in order to stabilize the high silver market partially created by the Hunt brothers hoarding large quantities of silver.

The Continental Coin Company of California purchased a great deal of this silver from the U.S. government Treasury reserves. They proceeded to mint 1oz rounds, as well as 10 oz and 100 oz bars in 1981.

They made sure that everyone knew it was made from silver that had been stored at the San Francisco Assay Office by boldly stating MINTED FROM US STOCKPILE SILVER and Formerly Stored at US ASSAY OFFICE SAN FRANCISCO. Many people who buy these bullion products continue to think they were minted by the U.S. Mint in San Francisco for the Assay Office.

The CC on the reverse stands for Continental Coin rather than Carson City, further adding to the confusion. These bullion rounds are even represented by sellers as being minted by the US Government for the purpose of public distribution.

The obverse features an American Bald Eagle flying in front of the U.S. flag. The legend above the eagle says “One Troy Ounce 31.1 Grams” and the legend below says “.999 Fine Silver Trade Unit” with olive branches between the words around the rim. The design is reminiscent of US Mint coins, but not as detailed.

The center of the reverse states “Formerly Stored at U.S. Assay Office San Francisco” with the CC logo beneath. The legend “Minted From U.S. Strategic Stockpile Silver” is around the border, and the date 1981 is flanked by 3 stars on each side.

These are only slightly more difficult to find than Engelhard Prospectors or other bullion silver rounds, but they aren’t exactly rare American coins. They are an example of American precious metal bullion history that preceded the Prospector by a year.

The 10 oz and 100 oz silver bullion bars have similar details stamped in them, but aren’t so easily confused for actual US Mint products. They look like standard bullion bars.

Learn How To Detect A Fake Krugerrand Gold Coin

If you are thinking of buying some gold Krugerrands, South Africa’s official gold bullion coins, then it’d be a good idea to become familiar with this unique coin. Essentially, you really should develop the skills to determine if a Krugerrand is fake. Hopefully, you’ll never need this skill, but it is good to have nonetheless and it’s relatively easy to learn.

The easiest way to avoid purchasing a fake Krugerrand will be to deal only with a reputable vendor, particularly a coin seller who specializes in or has extensive experience with Krugerrand coins. These dealers will have been dealing with these coins for some time, and they should easily be able to notice when a coin doesn’t feel right. What’s more, reputable coin vendors will be concerned about their reputations, so they’ll truly have an incentive to ensure that they only offer genuine gold coins.

While that is one step you can take, remember that it’s also relatively easy to verify the authenticity of a Krugerrand on your own. Standards for these coins are published by the South African Mint and publicly available, so you can compare the coin you are thinking of buying with these standards. In addition, you should be aware that gold has some special characteristics that make it unique. Specifically, it has a very high density, higher than the other easily available metals. If someone does decide to create a fake Krugerrand fashioned out of one of these other, lesser metals, the weight differential should really be entirely noticeable if you know what it is you should be looking for. And you should be aware that the metals that are as dense as gold are either very difficult to acquire, very steeply-priced, or pretty brittle. All of this is in your advantage when attempting to spot a fake.

In terms of physical characteristics, this is what you should be looking for: a 1 ounce Krugerrand has a weight of 33.930g, a diameter of 32.77mm, a thickness of 2.84m, and 160 serrations around the edge. A half-ounce Krugerrand has a weight of 16.965g, a diameter of 27.07mm, a thickness of 2.215mm, and 185 serrations. A quarter-ounce Krugerrand carries a weight of 8.482g, a diameter of 22.06mm, a thickness of 1.888mm, and 150 serrations. And finally, a 1/10 ounce Krugerrand carries a weight of 3.393g, a diameter of 16.55mm, a thickness of 1.35mm, and 115 serrations.

In order to carry out these tests, you will want fine-grained ruler that has millimeter markings plus an accurate scale that can weigh in grams. As a substitute, there is also a very useful gadget known as the Fisch Tester that can test all of these things for you. It comes with a coin-shaped recess used for checking shape, a slot for checking a coin’s thickness and diameter, and a fulcrum to check a coin’s weight. The Fisch Tester will save you time and effort and can make it much easier for you to spot a phony. At the same time, you should be careful about buying a Fisch Tester on eBay because, in a twist of irony, there have been some reports of imitation Fisch Testers being offered there. To be safe, you may want to buy directly from Fisch.

Armed with this new knowledge, you should now have the capability to detect a phony Krugerrand on your own. Best of luck in your adventures in the gold market!

What to Look For In Coin Collecting: The Do’s and Don’ts of Coin Collecting

With so many hobbies one can choose from, coin collecting is one hobby that’s pursued by a lot of people. It’s also a hobby that takes some time for you to declare yourself a professional. The only thing to tell yourself is that it’s a hobby worth pursuing that’s why they call it the “Hobby of the Kings”.

When you want to pursue numismatics to make profits you should be prepare your self for hard work ahead. People who make money from collecting coins are full time in this industry and travel places looking for profitable coins. If you not prepared for that then its best you do this as a hobby.

To become a successful numismatist you have to get as much knowledge as you can about this hobby. Places where you can get information are newsletters, brokers, investment magazines and online articles like this one. The quicker you get the information the sooner you will start making a precious collection.

In order to succeed in this industry you have to be always researching more information.

To know the true value of a coin a beginner collector has to educate himself on how to grade coins. Getting knowledge on how to grade coins will help you in determining fake coins and prevent you from being scammed. You will also know how to value coins so you don’t buy worthless coins.

Collecting coins also trains one to be patient because collecting lot of coins can take years. So you have wait some time to reap the reward from collecting coins. But most definitely it’s worth the wait.

To be successful in numismatics requires you to start thinking like an investor. Make sure that the people you take advice from are a reliable source because getting the wrong advice will make you lose lots of money in buying priceless coins.

When starting out in this hobby requires you to have lots of money to invest. Not only do you need money to buy the coins but you also need it to buy numismatists equipment and have money to travel places in search of coins. Also stay up to date with market news because prices of coins can drop due to various reasons. This will help you be aware of the right time to buy valuable coins.

Just like any other hobby collecting coins needs you to give it time to excel. Just be on the look out for good deals and use a little common sense here and there and you will most definitely see good results from your new found hobby.

The Disadvantages to Owning or Buying Gold or Silver Bullion

What are some disadvantages to owning or buying gold or silver bullion, or are there any? This question needs to be answered before investing so as to make the best choice possible. Though some say there are none, or almost none, there are a few. If an informed investment is to be had, then all aspects of the decision need to be considered.

In a vacillating economy, many people think that precious metals are the ideal investment. Well, this may be, but there are still some negative considerations. One such consideration is that of deflation. During deflation, the dollar increases in value. This makes it more desirable, and people typically cash in other investments for the dollar. The attempt to cash in gold and silver in mass quantities will lower their value, and make them harder to sell because there will be fewer customers.

For silver, a big disadvantage is that of having such a small market to start with. Thus, it seems the ups and downs are more severe. One must have the intestinal fortitude to weather these ups and downs with a sense of doom about each decrease in price.

One disadvantage to owning or buying gold or silver bullion is the costs associated with storing, and insuring security of the bullion. Other types of investments don’t have the same disadvantages.

Bullion is both bulky and heavy, meaning a problem with handling. Just 1000 oz of bullion requires a huge space and the ability to handle that much weight. This adds to problems with storage and security.

Other disadvantages include the volatility of these metals. Prices go up and down frequently. You also don’t earn interest or dividends with them. This must be taken into consideration before making your decision to buy.

Over the last four decades, the economy has shown a big growth. Companies such as Microsoft and Wal-Mart have made great gains. This is reflected at the same time by a huge growth in gold and silver. This tends to make investors overlook the trend and think that they are getting a better bargain than they really are. Historically, these metals have had a lower rate of growth than other investments, which is seen as a disadvantage to them.

The purity of the bullion that is bought and the likelihood of getting less than the percentage expected is another disadvantage to owning or buying gold or silver bullion. An added cost when either buying or selling bullion is that of assessing the percentage of purity. This decreases the amount of profit in a sale, and increases the cost when buying. Therefore, your investment doesn’t yield as much as it otherwise might.

Though these metals are good investments, they are not without certain risks. When deciding on whether or not to invest in them, all the pros and cons should be considered. They are good investments if all the advantages and disadvantages are considered, but not so if either is ignored. Like all things in life, there are risks involved. Overriding these risks, though, might well be the satisfaction of owning these precious metals.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Buying Gold Bullion

Gold bullion is the measurement of the weight and brightness of gold. Gold bullion will help you to earn some good profit after investing money to buy gold bullion coins and bars. During economic crisis gold bullion coins give good result to consumers. If you probe, you will find that there are many well known businessmen including topmost celebrities who have strengthened their financial condition by dealing with pure gold coins. Basically, according to the experts, the value of un-circulated gem/gold coins is much higher than circulated coins. If your gold coins are free of scratches and dents, the quality of the coins will be assumed to be good. Prices will be automatically on the rise. For this reason, it will be better for you to collect un-circulated gold bars and coins for selling at justified price range.

Now there is another important area of concern. The positive aspect noticed when you wish to buy is that it checks or prevents inflation rates. It is seen that there can be a sudden decrease in the worthiness or value of paper currencies if the government orders mints to print excess dollars. Every dollar currency will bring less profit. However, compared to paper currency, gold bullion coins or currencies will not be devalued because the government prints gold currencies on the strength of the deposited gold bars in the repository. Basically, gold currencies are backed by deposited gold metal bars and coins.

If you wish to buy gold bullion bars and coins you should be well concerned about the authenticity of such dealers who sell genuine gold currencies. However, the concept of opting for gold standard currency also prevails. In this case, the government owns up the responsibility of printing limited number of gold currencies on the strength of the available gold coins and bars that are available in the vault. Now the problem is that there must be dearth of money as the government decides to release the limited number of currencies, which are backed by gold in vault. It will definitely produce negative impact on the economic infrastructure of the country.

There is another major drawback when you buy gold bullion. After comprehensive investigation, it has been found that gold billion prevents the higher authority of the government from framing new economic policies. During economic downtime, finance department takes the responsibility to print as many as currencies it can release and print. However, it is not possible in the case of gold standard system. The government is compelled to print currencies on the total number of gold bars/coins in the repository. If you check the historical records, you will find that gold bullion system performed well during World War I. During the industrial revolution also, which occurred in 19th century, this type of gold standard did a wonderful job.

How to Use Gold Markings to Help Sell Your Gold

With the current historic highs for the prices of precious metals, many people are looking into selling their unwanted jewelry and other items made from gold, silver and platinum. By learning about the gold markings or hallmarks as they are known in the trade, you will be better equipped to sell your gold. Like everything else, when it comes to precious metals, it is a good idea to know what you have before you try to sell it.

Most jewelry is marked or “stamped” with a hallmark telling the purity of the material. The key word here is most. Some custom made pieces may be signed or not and may or may not have the karat or purity of the material on the piece. Also, sometimes when a ring has been resized or a piece has been repaired, the markings will be removed in the finishing process and not reapplied. So do not assume that because it is not marked it is not precious metal.

Precious metals are bought and sold based on purity and weight. Jewelry is typically made from and marked 9k or .375, 10k or .417, 14k or .585, 18k or .750 or 22k or .917. This will tell you the purity of you piece with 9k being the lowest and 24k being pure gold. Where you find these markings depends on the type of piece you are looking at. Rings are normally marked on the inside of the shank or portion that attaches to the body or head of the ring. Bracelets, necklaces and chains will typically be marked somewhere on or around the clasp area. You will have to look carefully, open the clasp and look at the “male” end that inserts. Earrings are tough because the markings are normally very small, but look on the stem or post. Pendants and charms will be marked on the back or bail (that is the part that the chain goes through)

Whoever you sell your gold to will first look it over for gold markings to determine purity, and then they will weigh the piece. With the spot price of gold and these other two pieces of information, they can calculate the price you can sell your gold for.

Gold comes in many colors, the most common are yellow, rose and white; sometimes you will see all three in a single piece, it is referred to as “Black Hills” or “Tri-Color” gold.

Just because your item is white or silver colored does not mean it is gold. If it is marked.928 or sterling then it is Sterling Silver and if it is marked PLAT or IRD it is platinum. Both of which are precious metals and have value.

So look for those gold markings or hallmarks and remember the higher the number the more you will be able to get when you sell your gold.

Cash in on the Gold Rush With These Popular Household Items

Gold recycling is more popular than ever in recent years due to the demand of precious metals. Every bit of gold recycling helps supply that demand and the American public can help recycle and get paid to do so. Even if you don’t have a lot of gold jewelry around your house, there are plenty of other household items that contain gold and can be recycled for a profit. Recycling gold can be very profitable and help you make a few hundred dollars to a few thousand dollars depending on what you have to recycle.

To get started recycling gold, here are 10 items you can start looking for in your house to start recycling.

1) old laptop and old computers – different brands and models may have different components, but most likely your old computer will have gold in the chip processor, CD drive unit, and adapter extension for a laptop. Before extracting the gold from these items, you should research into the process for removing gold from these items. Often times, it will require using toxic chemicals so it is important to understand the process to remove the gold as well as practicing safety to make sure you aren’t harmed by the chemicals.

2) cell phones – in your cell phone, there are components made of gold or these items can be gold plated.

3) broken and unwanted jewelry – you may have old jewelry from an ex-spouse, ex girlfriend or boyfriend, and even from relatives. You may have items that you haven’t worn in 10 years or items that have broke. The great news is, these items can be turned into cash if you no longer desire them.

4) commemorative pins – you may have pins and buttons around the house that are actual gold. You may have inherited military memorabilia that contains gold.

5) Old fillings and caps – dentists years ago would use gold for fillings and caps. You may have a relative or even yourself that has had a gold filling removed.

6) Old smoke detectors – take down your old smoke detectors and replace them with new ones. Before discarding your old smoke detector, remove any gold

7) Old VCR’s – they have gold in them

8) Old Junker car – there is gold in your old car. Depending on the year, make and model, the gold content will differ. System chips and heat insulation are some places you can look.

9) old TV’s, printers, and cameras – I can’t list every make and model, but there are gold in these items. People discard these items everyday because they become outdated. You can pick these up for free and turn them into cash.

10) glassware and silverware – not all glassware and silverware will have gold, but some items will. Some place settings will have gold in the dish, some glassware will have gold in the glass, and some silverware will have gold within the utensil. Review all of your items carefully. Silverware may also be sterling silver which is also a precious metal that you can sell for instant profit.

As you can see, there are plenty of items that can be recycled and turned into instant cash. Some recycling methods take more time than others so you may have to experiment with the process to determine what method you enjoy best. The great thing about recycling precious metals is that anyone can start recycling today and earn some extra income doing so.

Yandere Simulator – A Stealth Video Game For The PC

Yandere Simulator is a free video game for PC users. It is a stealth type video game where the players play as a high school girl named Ayano Aishi. She is in love with her senior, senpai and wants to attain his attention by any means possible. It is quite a unique game with an addictive gameplay and good graphics. However, it is still in development stage and until it gets completed, it’s going to be a bit buggy.

The concept

Yandere Simulator is based on a typical Japanese high school theme. Ayano Aishi has a huge crush on her senpai and wants his love. However, she’s a bit reluctant to talk to him directly. And, to make things more difficult, it seems like her senpai is quite popular as other girls in the school are also trying to get close to him. Ayano has to eliminate her competition, and she can use all possible means to do so. Even blackmailing and killing other girls is allowed. However, she has to do these missions quietly, when no one is looking at her. Thus, comes the stealth element.

What’s in it for the players

Because of its high school drama element, the game is quite popular among the teenagers. However, that doesn’t stop some grown-up video gamers from playing the game. The gameplay is good despite the fact that the game is quite full of bugs. Control options are great, and the missions are challenging. To progress in the game players have to tasks that are quite immoral in the real world. However, it is this element that makes the game unique and addictive. Players have to complete the tasks without leaving any traces. Otherwise, Ayano will get caught and the game ends.

The game is quite detailed and relates quite much to the real world. For example, there is a social element in the game and that we live in a large group, we don’t want to get caught for the wrongdoings, etc.

The game is not complete

Again, Yandere Simulator is still in development stage and what available is the beta version. The developer of the game has made the beta version available on the internet for download and installation without spending any penny. Simply visit the official website to download the game. The download file is actually the game launcher using which you can also update the game. The game developer usually makes the update available after two weeks.

Since the game is still at testing phase, players experience quite many bugs, errors. In some cases, the game launcher doesn’t work and sometimes the game crashes. Also, you will never win the game because it is not complete yet.

I Review BitClub Network – Just Another Online Money Scheme?

Thanks for taking the time to read this BitClub Network Review! I’ve done some extensive research into the company, including talking to the creator of the compensation plan and business model, to get a full understanding of BitClub and the legitimacy of the program.

So let’s get straight to the point: “Is BitClub Network legit… or is it a scam?”

To answer that question we need to understand how mining operations work. There are literally hundreds of bitcoin mining operations going on right now out there on the internet that pretty much anybody can buy into.

BitClub Network is exactly that: a legitimate bitcoin mining operation with one huge draw that separates them from the rest of the mining operations out there: when you refer people, you get paid!

No other mining operation out there allows you to earn bitcoin passively every day and also have the compounding effect of network marketing working to help amplify and maximize your earnings in a short period of time.

This is one of the main reasons why BitClub Network is gaining so much momentum so fast.

So here’s how it works…

BitClub Network allows you to buy shares in their mining pools and get paid every day for 1000 days per share that you purchase. They currently have 3 mining pools that you can purchase shares from.

Depending on which of the BitClub Mining Pools you buy into, a percentage of your daily earnings will go towards buying more shares. So let’s say you buy into all three BCN mining pools today…

You will earn passive Bitcoin every day for 1000 days starting immediately. Then let’s say it takes 20 days to earn another share in all three pools (hypothetically), then you’d still have 980 days to earn on your original share PLUS another 1000 days beginning on the 20th day for the newly acquired shares. As time progresses the compound effect will kick in and you could easily see your potential earnings grow by as much as 10 or 20 times per day.


Keep in mind… I’ve said nothing so far about recruiting or building an MLM team yet.

Next MAJOR question: “do I need to recruit to make money in bitclub network?”

Answer: NO!

As I’ve just described you do NOT need to recruit a bunch of people to make money in BCN. But you may want to. It will only amplify and maximize your results, BIG TIME!

Remember the compound effect… that works when you’re building a team in BCN also. So you can see your potential earnings skyrocket much faster if you build a team. But it’s absolutely NOT necessary.

“How is Bitclub Network different than other Bitcoin Mining Operations?”

Bitclub Network is superior to the traditional mining operations in that everyday a percentage of your earnings goes back into BCN’s mining operation. Remember, you get more shares in the earnings when this happens… But what does bitclub network use your funds for???


The technology, computation requirements, logistics, and processing speeds are constantly needing to be upgraded and modified to keep up with demands. For that reason, BitClub network uses your “percentage” of repurchases to upgrade to bigger, better, faster, leaner, meaner, and more powerful equipment. Therefore, where other mining operations fizzle out, Bitclub has far more predictable and stable earnings during the course of each operation.

Again… I cannot emphasize this enough: each day a percent of your earnings goes towards buying more shares in each pool you buy into (partial shares if you will). This eventually adds up to more and more full shares, of which you earn passive daily income potentially for the life of the company as each share you earn has a life span of 1000 days.

As long as the company stays a float, you are earning income!

“Are there any hidden costs, fees or monthly membership dues to pay?”


Just a one-time $99 membership fee plus, depending on which pool you buy shares from, the initial cost of purchasing shares. After that there are no other costs/fees/dues associated to join Bitclub network.

Mining pool 1 ($500)

Mining pool 2 ($1000)

Mining pool 3 ($2000)

I highly recommend to buy into all 3 pools as fast as you can. That’s only going to cost you $3599 and then you are in business and earning daily. Conservatively, the way Bitclub network pays, you could see an ROI as early as 1 year without building a team. Everything after that is pure profit depending on the market value of BitCoin.

For a more detailed BitClub Network Review make sure you click the bitclub network review link below!

Swift Facing Criticism From Bitcoin Remittance Companies

One of the widely known mediums for financial transaction messaging called Swift has been facing criticism for not being able to fulfill the needs of financial markets around the world. There are some who believe that it has turned out to be inefficient for settling cross-border payments for not being able to manage real-time settlement of any transaction amount and not being transparent in payment status and settlement risk.

Global Payments Innovation – A New Initiative

In response to such criticism, Swift has launched Global Payments Innovation (‘GPI’), which has the ability to make funds available on the same day for B2B transfers that fall in the same time zone. It also offers secure remittance information, end to end payment tracking, and better transparency. The first phase of the project was made live in January this year and is currently in use by twelve banks, including ING, ‘Danske’ Bank, ‘Citi’, and Bank of China. It is currently focusing on B2B payments. Swift has made another commitment to expanding its cross border payment system.

The effort of improving global messaging service might be too small or too late in terms of resolving worldwide payment clearance, payment and settlement blockage, especially for customers from the non-banking sector.

‘Bitcoin’ Remittance Companies

Both new and old ‘bitcoin’ remitters are already working on resolving these issues. They use different ‘blockchains’ to transfer money around the world. Align Commerce is one of the ‘bitcoin’ remittance companies that became famous for $20.25 million in funding. ‘Marwan Forzley’, CEO of Align Commerce, considers distributed ledgers and ‘blockchain’ to be next generation opportunity.

Cross Border Payments in the Global Finance Chain

These payments were around $26 trillion in 2014, which is around 33 percent of the world’s GDP. Due to inconsistent and non-standardized infrastructure, the money will stay trapped in today’s system. For sending payment across the border, a customer has to find a transmitter for managing money transfer. The transmitter will be able to transfer payment due to its contacts with financial institutions in both home and recipient countries. Furthermore, each institution has its own intermediary, which adds more to the complexity of the process. Every bank, involved in managing the transfer, charges its own service fee and it can take 7 days for a process to complete.

The corporate sector around the world was estimated to be $15.7 trillion in 2014. They can negotiate fees between 1 to 2 percent of the payment amount. Whereas, small and medium size companies; and person to person transactions can be charged up to 15%. The hidden cost of these transactions makes it harder for customers who cannot afford it.

If a customer belongs to a ‘underbanked’ or undeserved part of the world, he may not be able to find those paths that may enable simplified cross border payments, for example, taking the services of a transnational bank for payment transfer by using their infrastructure.

Efforts made by ‘Bitcoin’ Remittance Companies

Although, Swift is committed to bringing transparency in cross border payments through ‘GPI’, yet, it failed to provide relief when it comes to customers who cannot negotiate fees. On the other hand, ‘bitcoin’ remittance companies have made efforts to resolve this issue at a small-scale. These companies enable customers to execute borderless transactions at a low and well-controlled cost.

One of the largest ‘bitcoin’ remittance firms called ‘Bitspark’ is based in Hong Kong. The company believes that it has the best long-term prospects despite the lack of traction. The CEO of the company, ‘George Harrap’, said,

The vast majority of the world’s remittances are not done via banks, but by cash money transfer shops. This will not affect how they manage their business or transactions. Cost will remain the same as remittance companies batch payments anyway, so potentially, reductions in wire fees do not affect companies who transfer $10m per transfer and draw down on this balance for small remits.

The Problem Persists

Despite Swift’s intention of improving payment transaction recording for its member institutions around the globe, it is possible that innovations inspired by ‘GPI’ may show up in other ‘blockchain’ enabled applications. For instance, ‘HyperLedger’ Project (a project in which Swift is a member) might develop the basis for cross border frameworks in future.

The CEO of ‘ZipZap’, ‘Alan Safahi’, managed to raise $1.1 million in 2014 for expanding its cash to ‘bitcoin’ service. According to him,

“‘ZipZap’ uses a combination of traditional (Swift) bank payment rails and ‘blockchain’ technologies to find the least expensive and most efficient transfer option. The Swift ‘GPI’ is primarily for B2B payments, so it will not impact ‘ZipZap’s’ current business flow.

It is mentioned in the Ripple that launching ‘GPI’ was more of a step toward staying relevant rather than a step toward modernization.